Alexandrian Book of Shadows (WICCA)
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Some of these earlier influences he incorporated into the new Feri tradition. Today the tradition has evolved and contains of a mixture of Green Wicca, Celtic and Druidic practices as well as modern Witchcraft. The Gods are seen as real spirit beings like ourselves, and not merely aspects of our psyche. The tradition is an ecstatic tradition, rather than a fertility tradition with emphasis on polytheism, practical magic, self-development and theurgy.
Strong emphasis is also placed on sensual experience and awareness, including sexual mysticism, which is not limited to heterosexual expression.
Wicca Religion, Book of Shadows
This is a mystery tradition of power, mystery, danger, ecstasy, and direct communication with divinity. Most initiates are in the arts and incorporate their own poetry, music and invocations into rituals. The Tradition is gender-equal, and all sexual orientations seem able to find a niche.
A leatherbound manuscript written in Gardner's handwriting that was titled Ye Booke of Ye Art Magical Ronald Hutton claims that it was spelt Ye Bok, but Valiente claims Ye Booke was later found amongst his papers from the Museum after his death and was obtained by Valiente. It appeared to be a first draft of Gardner's Book of Shadows, and featured sections based upon the rituals of the Order of Templars of the Orient which had been devised by the occultist Aleister Crowley. Gardner had gained access to these rituals in , when he had purchased a charter from Crowley giving him permission to perform the OTO rituals.
Taking this evidence into account, it seems that Gardner invented the idea of a Witches' Grimoire sometime between when he finished his novel High Magic's Aid , and , and had named it Ye Booke of Ye Art Magical.
- Oh no, there's been an error!
- WHAT IS WICCA?.
- Predators and Parasites: Persistent Agents of Transnational Harm and Great Power Authority;
- Internet Book of Shadows: Witchcraft (Annotated bibliography).
In , he had renamed it to the Book of Shadows, and soon began to make use of it with his Bricket Wood Coven. Adding weight to the evidence indicating Gardner invented the Book was that other neopagan witches of the time, such as Robert Cochrane, never made use of such a book. She noticed how much of the material in his Book of Shadows was taken not from ancient sources as Gardner had initially claimed, but from the works of the occultist Aleister Crowley, from Aradia, or the Gospel of the Witches, from the Key of Solomon and also from the rituals of Freemasonry.
She confronted Gardner with this, who admitted that the text he had received from the New Forest coven had been fragmentary and he had had to fill much of it using various sources.
Valiente dramatically rewrote sections such as the Charge of the Goddess and also wrote several poems for the book, such as The Witches Rune. She also helped to create a poem to include the Wiccan Rede within it.
Wiccan Wicca Witchcraft
Valiente also noticed that a chant in one ritual in the book was based upon the poem "A Tree Song" from Puck of Pook's Hill by Rudyard Kipling, which she had enjoyed as a child. The chant in question stated that: Oh, do not tell the priest our plight, Or he would call it sin; But - we have been in the woods all night, A-conjuring summer in!
This version, written by both Gardner and Valiente, but containing sections adopted from various sources, such as Aleister Crowley, Aradia, or the Gospel of the Witches, and even Rudyard Kipling, went on to become the traditional text for Gardnerian Wicca. Although his own book had been put together with the help of Doreen Valiente and included material from a variety of modern sources, notably from Aradia, or the Gospel of the Witches and the writings of Aleister Crowley it also included sections written in an antique or mock-antique style, including advice for witches brought to trial and tortured.