Ecoregion-Based Design for Sustainability
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Every mountain within a climatic zone has a typical sequence of elevational belts, with different ecosystems at successive levels: generally montane, alpine, and nival, but exhibiting considerable differences according to the zone where they occur. Vertical zonation in different ecoclimatic zones along the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains.
Redrawn from Schmithusen In the temperate semiarid climatic portion, the lowermost zone is a short-grass dry steppe basal plain; this is followed by a montane zone of ponderosa pine, Douglas fir, spruce, and fir. Above is the subalpine zone, followed by alpine tundra, and then perennial ice and snow. This sequence of elevational zones repeats on mountain ranges throughout the lowland, semiarid climatic zone.
Between the individual elevational belts, a lively exchange of materials occurs: Water and the products of erosion move down the mountains; updrafts and downdrafts carry dust and organic matter; animals move easily from one belt into the next; and wind and birds spread seeds. The belts, as a result, are interconnected and the geographic area over which a sequence of belts extends is considered to be a large ecological unit, an ecoregion.
In this sense, we do not treat the montane forest belt as a separate ecoclimatic zone. The montane belt is only one member of the total sequence of elevational belts. Montane belts in mountainous areas of different climatic zones are just as distinct from one another as the montane belt is from other elevational belts in the same zone. Each ecoregion includes areas in different parts of the world that are broadly similar in climate, surface features, and vegetation. For ex- 46 3. A scaled-down, simplified version of the ecoregions map of the continents, as mapped by Bailey These steppes typically are grasslands of short grasses and herbs with local shrub and woodland.
Pinyon-juniper woodland, for example, grows on the Colorado Plateau of the United States. The soils are Mollisols or Aridisols. This approach is based on understanding the formative processes that operate to differentiate ecoregions at various scales in a hierarchy. The units derived from such an approach are termed genetic. As Rowe pointed out, the key to the placing of map boundaries on ecological maps is the understanding of genetic processes.
We can only comprehend a landscape ecosystem if we know how it originated or evolved.
That is why Huggett suggested that the approach is evolutionary as well. This approach is distinguished from another approach that attempts to create ecoregion frameworks that would be more objective and repeatable. The frameworks are based on the overlay of ecosystem component maps e. Lines are shifted to coincide when the boundaries are divergent.
The maps, however, may be so inaccurate or unable to capture significant units of productivity or ecological response that they could lead to imperfect or false conclusions Bailey b. These involve using multivariate clustering of grid cells or sample points. A map is produced by drawing lines around cells or points of similar class. However, as Rowe pointed out, the units derived from such a process are not necessarily ecological. Ecological units can be comprehended only as wholes that have some process significance.
For example, a floodplain is a pattern of spatially associated, but unlike land units cells. The floodplain consists of the active channel, abandoned channel, islands, lakes, wetlands, levees, and so forth. Each unit has different characteristics, but is united with the others by common processes of development, namely cyclic inundation, erosion, meandering, and deposition. Ecoregional Mapping The map Ecoregions of the Continents Bailey was produced using a worldwide classification developed Bailey , , a; Bailey and Hogg from concepts advanced by John Crowley The general principle followed has been to identify ecosystem regions of continental scale based on macroclimate.
Macroclimates are among the most significant factors affecting the distribution of life on Earth. As the macroclimate changes, the other components of the ecosystem change in response. Macroclimates influence soil formation 48 3. As a result, ecosystems of different macroclimates differ significantly. Based on macroclimatic conditions and on the prevailing plant formations determined by those conditions, I subdivided the continents into ecoregions with three levels of detail. There are four groups. Three are humid, thermally differentiated: polar, with no warm season; humid temperate, rainy with mild to severe winters; humid tropical, rainy with no winters.
The fourth, dry, is defined on the basis of moisture alone and transects the otherwise humid domains. Within these groups are 15 types of climate based on seasonality of precipitation or on degree of dryness or cold; for example, within the humid tropical domain, rainforests with year-round precipitation can be distinguished from savannas with winter drought. Divisions correspond to these types. Each division is clearly defined by a particular type of climate diagram that helps explain the conditions that create them see Appendix B for stations thought to be representative of each division.
Table 3. For more information, including illustrated, detailed descriptions of the divisions, see my related book Bailey a. The climate is not completely uniform within divisions, so that a further subdivision can be undertaken. Within the dry climates, for example, there is a wide range of degree of aridity, ranging from very dry deserts through transitional levels of aridity in the direction of adjacent moist climates. We refer to these as climate subtypes. The subtypes largely correspond to major plant formations e.
They form the basis for subdividing ecoregion divisions into provinces and are based Ecoregional Mapping 49 Table 3.http://leondumoulin.nl/language/creatures/10940-sustaining-global.php
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With few exceptions, the climate subtypes largely correspond to zonal soil types and zonal vegetation. Zonal soil types and vegetation occur on sites supporting climatic climax vegetation. Such 50 3. Regional-Scale Ecosystem Units, Ecoregions sites are uplands i. Mountains exhibiting elevational zonation and the climatic regime of the adjacent lowlands are distinguished according to the character of the zonation by listing the altitudinal zones present.
Such mountainous environments are termed mountain provinces. More details about mapping procedures are presented elsewhere Bailey Pattern within Regions Within the same macroclimate, broad-scale landforms break up the east—west climatic pattern that would occur otherwise and provide a basis for further differentiation of ecosystems—the landscape mosaics mentioned earlier. The character of a landscape mosaic with identical geology will vary by the climate zone.
For example, vertical limestone would form quite different landscapes in a subarctic climate than in hot and arid climates. Limestone in a subarctic climate occurs in depressions and shows intense karstification, whereas in hot and arid climates, it occurs in marked relief with a few cave tunnels and canyons inherited from colder Pleistocene time Fig. Landforms with their geologic substrate, surface shape, and relief influence place-to-place variation in ecological factors such as water availability and exposure to radiant solar energy.
Through varying height and degree of inclination of the ground surface, landforms interact with climate and directly influence hydrologic and soil-forming processes. In short, the best correlate of vegetation and soil patterns at mesoscales and microscales is landform, because it controls the inHot and arid Arizona-Sonoran deserts, U.
Landscape types resulting from similar geology in two different climatic regions. Redrawn from Corbel Pattern Within Regions 51 tensities of key factors important to plants and to the soils that develop with them Hack and Goodlet ; Swanson et al. The importance of landform is apparent in a number of approaches to the classification of forest land e. Even in areas of relatively little topographic relief, such as the glacial landforms of the upper Midwest of the United States, landform explains a great deal of the variability of ecosystems across the landscape Host et al.
Landforms come in all scales and in a great array of shapes. On a continental level within the same macroclimate, several broad-scale landform patterns commonly break up the zonal pattern. They range from nearly flat plains to rolling, irregular plains, to hills, to low mountains, to high mountains Hammond According to its physiographic nature, a landform unit consists of a certain set of ecosystem sites. A delta has differing types of ecosystems from those of a moraine landscape next to it.
Within a landscape mosaic, the sites are arranged in a specific pattern. The tablelands of the west-central part of the North American continent are a case in point. For example, the Colorado Plateau is made up of various site-specific ecosystems, including valleys of various sizes, smooth uplands, stream channels mostly dry , individual slopes, terraces, sandbars in the stream channels, and several small and shallow depressions in the uplands.
Although the distribution of ecoregions is controlled by macroclimate and broad-scale landform patterns, local differences are controlled chiefly by microclimate and ground conditions, especially moisture availability. The latter is the edaphic related to soil factor.
Ecoregion-based design for sustainability
Within a landform, slight differences in slope and aspect modify the macroclimate to topoclimates Thornthwaite As outlined by Hills , three classes of topoclimate are commonly recognized: normal, hotter than normal, and colder than normal Fig. We refer to the ecosystems controlled, and partially defined, by topoclimate as site classes, following Hills In differentiating local sites within topoclimates, soil moisture regimes provide the most significant segregation of the plant community.
A sequence of moisture regimes, ranging from the top to the bottom of a slope, is as follows: drier, moist normal , and wetter Fig. It may be referred to as a soil catena, or toposequence Major Exposure to wind also influences soil moisture. The existence of small relief forms substantially affects the movement of air masses; it changes the direction and velocity of winds near the ground, thus contributing to the redistribution of rainfall.
The windward hill slopes 52 3. Slope and aspect affect temperature, creating topoclimates. From the hilltops, snow blows into depressions, where it accumulates and remains 1—2 weeks longer than on elevated sections. The lithology of the bedrock also affects vegetation patterns.
Different kinds of rock vary in their resistance to erosion, their hydrologic properties porosity, permeability, and so on , and chemistry. This affects not only the topography, but also soil formation and subsequent moisture content. This is particularly well illustrated in the semiarid regions with sedimentary rock, such as the Colorado Plateau.
Here, the bedrock is interbedded sandstone and shale. The shale erodes more easily, forming soils with higher moisture. Such soils support a more dense vegetation consisting of lightly but scattered grasses, shrubs, and Dr Be dr oc k ier Soi l cate na tt We er So il Figure 3. Variation in moisture creates a toposequence or catena of soil moisture regimes. Pattern Within Regions 53 small trees. This banding, a lithosequence, is caused by the preference of vegetation for greater moisture of slopes underlain by rock with slightly greater moisture.
Deviations from normal topoclimate and mesic soil moisture occur in various combinations within a region and are referred to as site types Hills As a result, every regional system—regardless of size or rank—is characterized by the association of three types of local ecosystem or site type: zonal, azonal, and intrazonal. Zonal site types. These sites are characterized by a normal topoclimate and moist soil. They are typically located on the well-drained uplands in the landscape. Azonal site types.
These sites are zonal in a neighboring zone but are confined to an extrazonal environment in a given zone. For instance, in the Northern Hemisphere, south-facing slopes receive more solar radiation than north-facing slopes; thus, south-facing slopes tend to be warmer, drier, less thickly vegetated, and covered by thinner soils than north-facing slopes.
In arid mountains, the southfacing slopes are commonly covered by grass, whereas steeper northfacing slopes are forested. Azonal sites are hotter, colder, wetter, or drier than zonal sites. The size, direction, and configuration of valleys and basins are also important in determining azonal conditions. Valleys, for example, produce their own wind systems.
At night, air over the valley slopes becomes its coldest and heaviest and thus is carried by gravity to the bottom of the valley. Vegetation refects these air movements. Cold-air drainage the cold downdrafts in the montane zone of the Rocky Mountains creates grassy areas in the valleys that are too cold for tree growth. These air movements also affect agricultural ventures. Grassy areas in citrus groves in Florida are slightly lower than the surrounding terrain. Intrazonal site types. These sites occur in exceptional situations within a zone.
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They are represented by small areas with extreme types of soil and intrazonal vegetation. Soil influences vegetation to a greater extent than climate; thus, the same vegetation forms may occur on similar soil in a number of zones. We can differentiate them into five groups: 1. Unbalanced chemically is the first site type. Some examples from the United States are the specialized plant stands on serpentine magnesium-rich soils in the California Coast Ranges.
Other examples are the belts of grassland on the lime-rich black 54 3. Regional-Scale Ecosystem Units, Ecoregions 2. The kind and amount of dissolved matter in groundwater also affects plant distribution. This is especially obvious along the coasts and along edges of desert basins, where the water is brackish or saline. Plants adapted to moist saline ground are called halophytes. Very wet sites occur where the groundwater table controls intrazonal plant distributions. The plants of these sites are phreatophytes, plants that send roots to the water table.
Examples include riparian zones in the deserts of the southwestern United States, such as a cottonwood floodplain forest and the cypress and tupelo forests of the Southeast. Very dry sites with sandy soils, because of limited moistureholding capacity, are drier than the general climate.
At the extreme, sand dunes fail to support any vegetation because they are too dry. Good examples include dunes along the coasts of oceans and lakes and the sand dunes that have formed in arid interior regions of the continents. Very shallow sites are another type. Soil depth, as a factor in plant distribution, may be controlled by depth to a water table or depth to bedrock. Vegetation growing along a stream or pond differs from that growing some distance away, where the depth to the water table is greater.
Examples of the influence of depth to bedrock on plant distribution can be seen in mountainous areas where bare rock surfaces that support only lichens are surrounded by distinctive flowering plants growing where thin soil overlaps the rock and is, in turn, surrounded by forest where the soil deepens. Very unstable sites are areas where gravity combined with high relief, steep slopes, weak bedrock, excessive groundwater, earthquake shocks, and undercutting causes landslides. These slides include slump-earthflows, rockslides, rockfalls, mantle slides, and mudflows.
Commonly, these slides produce anomalies in the topography and vegetation. This example is from southern Ontario, Canada Hills On level or moderately rolling areas where the soil is well drained but moist, a maple—beech community sugar maple and beech being the dominant plants is the terminal succession. Forest climaxes relate to topography in the temperate continental zone of southern Ontario, Canada. Diagram is truncated, showing only three of nine possible climaxes. Simplified from Hills In Odum From Fundamentals of Ecology, 3rd edition, by E.
Fax Where the soil remains wetter or drier than normal, a somewhat different end community occurs, as indicated. The climatic climax theoretically would occur over the entire region except for topography leading to different local climates, which partially determines edaphic conditions.
On these areas, different edaphic climaxes occur; climatic climaxes occur only on mesic soils. Slopes of similar physical characteristics will be found in various ecoregions and will support different ecosystems because of the different climates. For example, a certain slope in the Arctic will support low-growing shrubs and forbs, whereas an identical slope in a warm continental ecoregion will have dense broad-leaf and evergreen forests Fig.
On the other hand, the same vegetation may exist in different ecoregions due to compensation factors, such as soil, that override the climatic effect. For example, in the High Plains and southwestern United States, forests extend into arid and semiarid regions along streams because of the extra water supply Figure 3. Conversely, similar landforms relief and geological materials within different regions will support different plant successions. Examples of ecosystem diversity in different ecoregions.
Adapted, in part, from Leser and Nagel Riparian forests near Scottsbluff, Nebraska. Pattern Within Regions 57 Table 3. With these changes, related changes also occur in the vigor of other tree species, ecosystem productivity, and type of ground vegetation, which competes with forest regeneration. Soil—site relationships have been extensively studied in the southern Appalachian Mountains and the relationship between productivity and soil and topographic variable has been quantified for many important tree species.
McNab found that the suitability of sites in this region for certain forest types can be predicted accurately just on the basis of topographic data measured on site. Suitability of sites can be predicted by means of geographic information systems, because values of the topographic variables can be calculated from a digital elevation database. In summary, we can interpret the patterns of continental ecosystems through the primary factor of climate.
Regional ecosystems, or ecoregions, are areas of homogeneous macroclimate. The arrangement of these ecoregions is regular and predictable because the controlling factors are the same for each. We can predict the kind of system that will be found in any particular place on Earth if we know the latitude, relative continental position, and elevation.
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Likewise, within each ecoregion is a characteristic pattern of sites that recur in a predictable way, as a result of the nature of the soil and surface. We discuss the role of ecoregions in sustainability in the next chapter. This page intentionally left blank CHAPTER 4 An Ecoregional Approach to Sustaining Ecosystems Ecology-Based Design Because ecology-based design responds to the ecoregion, we must consider the relationships among soils, vegetation, materials, culture, climate, and topography in a particular region.
In other words, the ecoregional setting needs to be taken into account in our designs. We can begin by looking for information about successful ecological designs in other areas around the globe with the same kind of ecoregion. In their book, Ecological Design, Van der Ryn and Cowan referred to this approach as bioregional-level planning. In Texas, the scrubby mesquite tree is regarded as a nuisance and ruthlessly cleared away. In the badlands of Argentina, though, it has long been used for floor tiles. On the Laredo farm, mesquite tiles are used for paving.
An Ecoregional Approach to Sustaining Ecosystems utilize the wind, cistern catchment systems capture rainfall, the cropshading system and cooling towers provide protection from the sun, and agricultural wastes are treated before reaching the Rio Grande River. It also uses local resources: vegetation mesquite tiles , minerals e.
By responding in an information-rich, energy-poor, and materials-frugal manner to a demanding landscape, the Laredo farm minimizes destructive ecological impacts. Recycled materials frame the doors and windows. Solar panels on the roof provide electricity; rainwater is harvested in cisterns for drinking and bathing.
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Composting toilets treat wastewater, and graywater is funneled into a wetland garden, which includes cattails. A canopy of vines shades the building from the intense Texas sun. History and a Sense of Place Ecological design is not new. Aboriginal peoples practiced it to enable them to persist for millennia. By necessity, they designed with the climate and with a sense of place J. Jackson Examples are provided by the indigenous domestic architecture that developed in each climatic region.
It has only been in the past century that we have ignored the natural limits of place. With the appearance of inexpensive energy, large sheets of glass, and air conditioning, architecture lost its connections with the ancient truth that the Earth dictates the most important building guidance. It was Alvin Toffler in his book Future Shock who commented that the human species had been on Earth for roughly generations and in only the last 2 had there been air conditioning. His point was that, yes, there was life before air conditioning.
In fact, human beings first evolved in the hot, dry savannas of Africa and are, therefore able to acclimatize to heat. We keep cool by sweating; our skin temperature is lowered as perspiration evaporates. A well-known example of buildings designed to heed their environment are the Anasazi cliff dwellings of the southwest United States. These high-mass, adobe-type dwellings were built in south-facing caves, which provided passive solar gain in the winter and blocked heat gain in the summer.
The local materials for these dwelling were History and a Sense of Place 61 Figure 4. Pueblo of Zuni, New Mexico. In the pueblos of Zuni, Taos, Acoma, and elsewhere in the deserts of the Southwest, their successors use adobe and large mass to create pueblos that make them much easier to keep cool Fig. This thermal mass is critical in buffering outdoor temperature swings. In other regions, homes constructed of brick accomplish the same effect.
To duplicate the effect of overhanging cave roofs, houses used to be built with eaves and windows placed so that winter sun would come into the house, whereas summer sun could not enter Fig. This was one of the merits of the California bungalow Fig. These middle-class dwellings were mass-produced from shortly after the turn of the twentieth century until the mids.
With their emphasis on simplicity and practicality, their picturesque use of fieldstone and shingle, and their unadorned structural elements, the design appealed to many home builders throughout the country. It was famous furniture manufacturer Gustav Stickley — who first called attention 4. Overhangs provide summer shading and allow winter solar gain. This may be one of the reasons they are also referred to as Craftsman-style houses. Interest in bungalows is at an all-time high, both for vintage and newly constructed ones. American Bungalow magazine publishes information about both.
Figure 4. Craftsman-style house of the s. Vintage postcard by Edw. History and a Sense of Place 63 In addition to roof overhangs, bungalows have front porches; the shade from their overhangs cool interior rooms during hot spells and shelter outdoor gatherings. In southern regions, where the ground is swampy and damp, builders developed the tradition of building second-story porches, which wrap around the house and serve as upstairs hallways. Until immediately after World War II, front porches were vital, both architecturally and sociologically, providing an interface between the inside and outside of the house.
They were the places where gossip and information about the world was exchanged with neighbors. Today, information comes for other sources, like television. When cars became more popular, many new developments were built to be driven through, not walked in, and architectural styles emerged without front porches. Front porches are now making a comeback in some new planned communities.
However, as noted by Alexander et al. In Sienna, a planned unit development in Fort Collins, Colorado, the front porch was among the amenities that the architect provided. In an effort to create the intimacy and flavor of traditional small towns, many planners are trying to create a sense of neighborhood and community. They found the solution by placing the garage doors at the rear of the house, facing an alley. Architecturally this may work, but by failing to recognize our well-entrenched consumer habits—many prefer to shop once a week at sprawling discount outlets rather than every day at more expensive corner grocery stores—we will continue to be isolated from our neighbors.
We will go to the garage, push the door opener, back out, close the door automatically, and drive to do our errands. Later, returning to our garages and closing the door, we will complete the cycle, all completely isolated from our neighbors. A different sort of building plan documents these current societal values, observes Akiko Busch in her book Geography of Home The gated communities springing up across the United States look more to the present, not to past tradition. Such high-security suburbs, as they are sometimes called, reflect a different view of neighbors and community than by seen from front porches.
Devised and operated by real estate corporations, these communities have a myriad of covenants and restrictions to govern everything from the color of the house to putting up a clothesline in the back yard. Incidentally, clotheslines are making a comeback in some neighborhoods because they save energy and conserve resources.
It seems that these restrictions, though more about protecting real estate values than preserving American traditions of freedom and good design, are appealing to a growing number of peo- 64 4. An Ecoregional Approach to Sustaining Ecosystems ple who find security and comfort in them. Writes Busch , p.
As our homes begin to serve as fortifications, we no longer use the front porch for idle talk and business. She adds , p. Orienting homes to increase the opportunity to use the sun for passive solar heating or daylight can be important in green design. In cold climates, building form should be compact to reduce heat loss due to winter winds and slightly elongated on the east—west axis to maximize solar gain. In temperate climates, where the goal is to maximize winter heat gain while minimizing summer overheating, the building should approximate an elongated rectangle running east to west.
This minimizes the length of the east and west walls that receive the maximum amount of radiation in the morning and afternoon Olgyay The length of the roof overhangs for summer shading is a critical factor; the correct length will vary with climate and latitude. In a hot and humid climate, heat gain through windows should be minimized and ventilation and shading maximized. For hot and dry climates, solar gain should be minimized through shading, especially on the western side. Air movement should be maximized with cross-ventilation. Twenty-five years ago, McHarg produced his seminal text on ecological design McHarg Van der Ryn has been teaching ecological design at Berkeley for 30 years.
To gain a solid and full understanding of this subject, his Ecological Design, with Stuart Cowan , is indispensable. By the way, although successful, the designs tend to be limited, geographically. Successful designs are derived in large part from understanding the natural processes that occur in different regions, and then designing structures and land use accordingly. Falling Water. Architect: Frank Lloyd Wright. Photograph by Robert G. Bailey; used with permission of Western Pennsylvania Conservancy. He makes the case that these are manifestations of our extreme emphasis on private-property rights and reliance of the automobile.
Bill Bryson makes the same case in The Lost Continent. As a roadologist and veteran of long road trips across America myself, I can sympathize with the boredom he feels. If it were not for the changing geography, it would be hard to tell where you are sometimes; everywhere you see the same tourist junk, fast food, and strip malls.
Bryson is rightly outraged at the disappearance of local character and the cheesiness of mass culture. In ecological design, by contrast, the design is sensitive to ecological context and responds to the ecoregion. The task of ecological design is to create land use and structures deeply adapted to place.
In , the Ford Motor Co. In the s, this world was realized in the more elegant stretches of the new interstate highway system then being constructed. Modern design, it was felt, would, before long, solve all modern problems. An Ecoregional Approach to Sustaining Ecosystems left behind. All is not lost, however. In this book, Moon gives an account of his 21,km journey along the back roads of the United States marked with the color blue on old highway maps. He warns, however, that if you find one that has more than seven, you better not advertise the fact, as the owners might franchise and ruin it.
The downtown Main Street of many small towns in America has been dying a long, slow death ever since the automobile enabled people to shop elsewhere Hart Many of the storefronts are boarded up and what businesses that remain usually include a beer joint, video store, and donut shop. Also, as J. Jackson observes, who has not noticed that in almost every small American town the upper stories of the buildings flanking Main Street are being deserted.
Many of the second-story windows in the older brick buildings have been obliterated by commercial facades that were put up in the s and s in an attempt to make the building look modern or up-to-date. Not many years ago, they accommodated the offices of lawyers, dentists, and doctors, dance studios, and insurance agencies.
They have moved because the law firm needed more space, the doctor moved closer to the hospital, and the dance studio required more modern wiring. Now all that remains is the gold lettering on the windows Fig. Sooner or later, some of these building will be torn down, to be replaced by one-story buildings or parking lots.
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Away from the center of the typical American small town, there is a residential section of tree-lined streets with large houses surrounded by lawns. Where I live, in Fort Collins, they were lived in by prosperous families, the most desirable part of town.
Now, many of these houses have been transformed into apartments, especially adjacent to the university where students live off campus. The lawns suffer from neglect and are occasionally adorned by castoff sofas and empty beer containers. The original owners have either died or moved to a more History and a Sense of Place 67 Figure 4. Business district, Laramie, Wyoming, circa Vintage postcard by Sanborn Souvenir Co. Many of these single-family homes are so large that they remind one of institutional architecture.
Like most American suburbs, they are filled with large, expensive homes, but a larger home is not necessarily a better home. Sarah Susanka , p. Second-story window of the former F. Woolworth Co. An Ecoregional Approach to Sustaining Ecosystems time for a different kind of house. A house that is more than square footage. Older neighborhoods are filled with examples of small houses from the past, like the Craftsman bungalow. To meet the demand for such houses where they are scarce, some builders are starting to create neighborhoods full of them.
A feature article in the October 17, edition of the Christian Science Monitor looks at the appeal of smaller houses. In the Seattle area, cottage developments are helping the city stay within urban grown boundaries, yet supply needed housing. They create a sense of community for residents through shared garden space and courtyard design. Builders have found that detached dwellings of ft2 or less less than some suburbanites use to garage their cars can be aesthetically appealing and highly marketable.
Rehabilitation of the many small houses in older, modest neighborhoods could supplement the building of new cottage projects and lessen the damage to the environment. Part of the reason is that the embodied energy in an existing building is great, and its reuse will save much of the energy and expense of new construction, eliminating demolition and disposal costs.
In many cases, these older buildings have wonderful architectural character that could not be economically replicated. The facades of commercial buildings are being restored and new businesses are clamoring to move in. Redesigning buildings that can have another use at the end of their original life need not mean featureless boxes with undifferentiated interiors at the edge of town. Overall, this is a very useful text. It describes ecoregions in ways in which they could be understood easily by the lay person.
To assist this, the text is excellently illustrated using a wide variety of sources postcards, photographs, maps etc. It deserves the widest readership. An extensive list of references is included for those interested in Its principle contribution to a landscape ecologist's library is the discussion of the panoply of uses to which the ecoregion maps have been put. Review quote From the reviews: "The book moves well beyond classical ecology and links with environmental sustainability. Rating details. Book ratings by Goodreads. Goodreads is the world's largest site for readers with over 50 million reviews.
We're featuring millions of their reader ratings on our book pages to help you find your new favourite book. Buy Softcover. FAQ Policy. About this Textbook This book completes Robert G. Show all. From the reviews: "The book moves well beyond classical ecology and links with environmental sustainability. Those not acquainted with the subject will benefit from these sections. Table of contents 7 chapters Table of contents 7 chapters Introduction Pages Significance to Ecosystem Management Pages Summary and Conclusions Pages