Elements and Inorganic Compounds
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Two types of chemical reactions involve the creation or the consumption of water: dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis. These reactions are reversible, and play an important role in the chemistry of organic compounds which will be discussed shortly. Recall that salts are formed when ions form ionic bonds. In these reactions, one atom gives up one or more electrons, and thus becomes positively charged, whereas the other accepts one or more electrons and becomes negatively charged.
This fact is important in distinguishing salts from acids and bases, discussed next. A typical salt, NaCl, dissociates completely in water Figure 2. The positive and negative regions on the water molecule the hydrogen and oxygen ends respectively attract the negative chloride and positive sodium ions, pulling them away from each other. Again, whereas nonpolar and polar covalently bonded compounds break apart into molecules in solution, salts dissociate into ions. These ions are electrolytes; they are capable of conducting an electrical current in solution.
This property is critical to the function of ions in transmitting nerve impulses and prompting muscle contraction. Many other salts are important in the body. For example, bile salts produced by the liver help break apart dietary fats, and calcium phosphate salts form the mineral portion of teeth and bones. Acids and bases, like salts, dissociate in water into electrolytes.
Acids and bases can very much change the properties of the solutions in which they are dissolved. Because an atom of hydrogen has just one proton and one electron, a positively charged hydrogen ion is simply a proton. This solitary proton is highly likely to participate in chemical reactions. This strong acid aids in digestion and kills ingested microbes. Weak acids do not ionize completely; that is, some of their hydrogen ions remain bonded within a compound in solution. An example of a weak acid is vinegar, or acetic acid; it is called acetate after it gives up a proton.
The relative acidity or alkalinity of a solution can be indicated by its pH. That is, a solution with a pH of 4 is ten times more acidic than a solution with a pH of 5. The concept of pH will begin to make more sense when you study the pH scale, like that shown in [link]. The scale consists of a series of increments ranging from 0 to A solution with a pH of 7 is considered neutral—neither acidic nor basic. Pure water has a pH of 7. The concentration of hydrogen ions at each pH value is 10 times different than the next pH. For instance, a pH value of 4 corresponds to a proton concentration of 10 —4 M, or 0.
Human urine, for example, is ten times more acidic than pure water, and HCl is 10,, times more acidic than water. The pH of human blood normally ranges from 7. At this slightly basic pH, blood can reduce the acidity resulting from the carbon dioxide CO 2 constantly being released into the bloodstream by the trillions of cells in the body. Homeostatic mechanisms along with exhaling CO 2 while breathing normally keep the pH of blood within this narrow range. This is critical, because fluctuations—either too acidic or too alkaline—can lead to life-threatening disorders.
All cells of the body depend on homeostatic regulation of acid—base balance at a pH of approximately 7. The body therefore has several mechanisms for this regulation, involving breathing, the excretion of chemicals in urine, and the internal release of chemicals collectively called buffers into body fluids. A buffer is a solution of a weak acid and its conjugate base. A buffer can neutralize small amounts of acids or bases in body fluids.
For example, if there is even a slight decrease below 7. In contrast, if pH rises above 7. Acids and Bases Excessive acidity of the blood and other body fluids is known as acidosis. Acidosis can also be caused by metabolic problems that reduce the level or function of buffers that act as bases, or that promote the production of acids.
For instance, with severe diarrhea, too much bicarbonate can be lost from the body, allowing acids to build up in body fluids. In people with poorly managed diabetes ineffective regulation of blood sugar , acids called ketones are produced as a form of body fuel. Look at the molecule and divide it up into the positive and negative elements. Name the positive element first, followed by the negative element. Na is sodium, Cl is chlorine but in a compound it is modified to chloride. So the name is Sodium chloride. The number of I is not important for naming purposes, at least not yet.
Sr is strontium and I is iodine which is modified to be iodide. So the name is strontium iodide. Stop here and do Nomenclature Exercise 1. Identify the elements with their symbols. Write the positive element first followed by the second element. Look on the periodic table and find the valences of the elements and write them in above and to the right of the symbols as superscripts. Cross multiply the valences and place the numbers as subscripts below and to the right of the symbol.
Stop and check that the total positive charges and total negative charges balance out to zero 0. If the numbers generated are divisible by a common denominator then divide them to get the lowest possible numbers.
Erase the superscripts and any ones 1 because a "1" is always assumed. Stop here and do Nomenclature Exercise 2. These ions are made up from 2 or more different types of atoms. Quite often they have a non-metal atom which is capable of different valences. It is probably best at this time for you to commit these to memory and worry about how they are formed until later.
What is the Difference Between Organic and Inorganic?
There is one additional rule. If you need more than 1 of a polyatomic ion, indicate this with brackets and a subscript. The superscripts which indicated charges are gone. They have been replaced by subscripts that give the numbers of each kind of ion. The overall charge on the entire molecule is zero 0. Note: The positive ion is written and named first.
This is because it is the most electropositive. The negative ion is written and named second because it is not as electropostive.
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As a matter of fact it is very electronegative. The above ions have a -3 charge. Treat them as if they were a single atom ion by placing brackets around them when necessary. If the rules for cross multiplying are followed you could end up with Sr 2 SO 4 2 as an answer. This is a case where you have a common number between the two groups that can be easily divided. In this case by 2. No brackets are needed or should be included. Since ammonium is polyatomic we must put brackets around it indicating that we need two complete ammonium ions.
Stop here and do Nomenclature Exercise 3. One class of ternary compounds, the cyanides, are a unique historical anomaly.
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The cyanide ion, CN-, is very difficult to break apart into its constituent elements. It is also chemically very similar to the halide ions, and for many years it was believed to be another halide ion. As a consequence, even now its salts retain the -ide ending of binary compounds. The compound KCN is universally called potassium cyanide although it actually is a ternary compound. Potassium cyanate is KOCN, a quite different and quaternary compound. The same rules apply for making up formulas and names. Positive ions are written and named first followed by the negative ions.
Stop here and do Nomenclature Exercise 4. The nomenclature work that you have done so far is all that is needed if only one binary compound of the two elements exists. Many combinations of two elements, however, can result in more than one compound. For example, iron and chlorine react to produce both FeCl 2 and FeCl 3 , which have demonstrably different properties, and so the name iron chloride is ambiguous. Whenever two or more compounds of the same two elements are possible, one of two approaches to modifying the name is used.
Both approaches are valid, although one may be more appropriate with a particular compound than the other. Very few compounds are named using both approaches. Oxidation States and the Stock System. The first of these approaches taken when two or more different compounds of the same elements exist is the oxidation state approach, also called the Stock system after the chemist A.
It can be rationalized in the following simple discussion, which is a brief summary of a more elaborate discussion we will take up later.
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The oxidation state of an element in a compound is denoted by placing a Roman numeral after the name of the element. Oxidation states are given if and only if they are necessary to make the name unambiguous. In the case of iron chloride, oxidation states should be used. Calculation of the oxidation state of an element when it is combined in a compound or ion has many different approaches.
It usually depends on who is teaching it and how they first learned it themselves from their teachers. It can be done by the application of one definition and a few general properties of some of the common elements. The definition is as follows:. The sum of the oxidation states of all the elements in a compound is zero ; the sum of the oxidation states in an ion positively or negatively-charged species is equal to the net charge on the ion.
The properties of the elements used to determine oxidation state are, in order of precedence:. There are virtually no exceptions. The only significant exceptions are the peroxides, such as H 2 O 2 and Na 2 O 2 , in which the oxygen is in the -1 oxidation state. The only significant exceptions are the saline hydrides, such as LiH, in which hydrogen is in the -1 oxidation state. The only significant exceptions are those compounds of the halogens which also include oxygen, such as NaClO 4.
Most of the transition metals have several different oxidation states. Putting them in is not incorrect but it would be a chemical social faux paus. To name the compound NiO 2 , first name the elements: nickel oxygen. Second, change the ending: nickel oxide. This gives the name: nickel IV oxide.
The oxidation state of oxygen need not be specified. To name the compound V 2 O 5 , first name the elements: vanadium oxygen. In this activity, drag and drop the descriptors of organic and inorganic compounds in the appropriate location on the graphic organizer. Descriptors that apply to both organic and inorganic compounds should be placed in the center section. Remember to use the Periodic Table.
Go back to the observation you wrote earlier. Based on the information in the reading, revise your observation. Add additional notes if needed. In the following activity, you will check your understanding by identifying examples of organic compounds. Compounds are frequently represented using models. For example, the organic compound urea, CH 4 N 2 O, contains a total of eight atoms. A model of urea might look like one of these. In the activity below, you will select models that represent organic compounds. Remember to use your Periodic Table! Take the short quiz to check your understanding of organic compounds.
Use your Periodic Table. Scientists study the natural world, looking for new discoveries. Chemists look for new compounds to cure diseases, answer questions, or help develop new products. There are rules about which elements bond together and how they bond to form a compound. For example, water has a chemical formula of H 2 O.
If the formula is changed to H 2 O 2 , the substance is no longer water, but is now hydrogen peroxide. Imagine you are a chemist researching organic compounds. You are convinced you have discovered a new organic compound and are explaining your discovery to another scientist. Consider the notes you wrote earlier in the lesson as you complete the task.
Record the response to the following questions in your science notebook. In this lesson, students identify that organic compounds contain carbon and other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, nitrogen, or sulfur TEKS 7 6 A.
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Explore patterns in compounds that define organic compounds and make an observation about identifying organic compounds. Students will be given a list of chemical formulas and a t-chart in which they have to sort the compounds as organic or inorganic based on examples provided. Once the compounds are sorted, students will be asked to make and record an observation that can be used to identify an organic compound. At this point, their observation should say something about the compound containing carbon and hydrogen. Encourage students to use their Periodic Table throughout the entire lesson.
During the explain section, students will read information about organic and inorganic compounds. The information can be used to verify the observation they created. Students can update or add to their observation based on information in the reading. There are two activities to check for understanding of organic compounds.
One activity students drag and drop descriptors about organic and inorganic compounds. The second activity has a list of compounds and students are asked to identify the organic compounds. Remind students to use their Periodic Table as a reference tool. Students read about models of compounds and then asked to identify models of organic compounds. In 7th grade, students do not need to know the rules about bonding, but know models of compounds can be represented in different ways. Encourage the use of the Periodic Table. Create Your Own Organic Compound.
Create a chemical formula for an organic compound and justify the classification as being organic.